Minerals

A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet.

Magnesium

It is one of the most important minerals for the human body. Magnesium can be found primarily in cells like potassium (and not in fluids like sodium), it activates over 300 different enzymes and helps with the normal functioning of the nervous system. It is often associated with the occurrences of muscle contractions. Magnesium deficiency increases nervous tension. Magnesium helps to maintain healthy bones, teeth, normal psychological functions and electrolyte balance.

National Health Survey in Poland (WOBASZ)* demonstrated that the diet of Poles – both women’s and men’s – is poor in magnesium.

Deficiency

Persons with an unbalanced nutrition and those who eat processed food containing great amounts of preservatives, phosphates, fibre and phytates are especially at a greater risk of magnesium deficiency. The deficiency of this mineral is also caused by the nervous system aggravation and suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Supplementation of magnesium should also be considered by persons with kidney diseases and those taking drugs (such as contraceptives, psychotropic drugs or sleeping pills). Drinking small amounts of mineral water can also be the cause of magnesium deficiency.

Symptoms
  • neuromuscular and cardiovascular disorders
  • hypertension
  • increased probability of osteoporosis
  • weakened condition, apathy
  • depression
  • concentration difficulties
  • increased irritability
  • nervous ticks, e.g. eye twitching
  • hair loss, brittleness of nails
  • nystagmus
  • a risk of metabolic syndrome
  • insulin resistance, impaired secretion of insulin

Excess

Persons taking antacids or hyper doses of the mineral are at risk of magnesium overload in the body.

Symptoms
  • laxative properties
  • alkalosis
  • hypokalemia
  • dehydration
  • breathing difficulties
  • irregular heartbeat
Iron

The so-called carrier of oxygen. It is the most important component of haemoglobin in red blood cells. It protects against oxidative stress. Iron is responsible for maintaining the energy metabolism and contributes to the decrease of fatigue.

National Health Survey in Poland (WOBASZ) * demonstrated that the diet of Polish women is poor in iron.

Deficiency

The most common causes of iron deficiency are insufficient iron intake and iron absorption problems. Pregnant women, women losing a lot of blood during menstruation and persons on a vegan or vegetarian diets should remember about iron supplementation. Iron deficiency can also be caused by a gastrointestinal bleeding or an internal bleeding.

Symptoms
  • the first symptom of iron deficiency is the decrease of ferritin concentration level, then decrease of haemoglobin concentration level
  • debility
  • drowsiness
  • paleness of skin and conjunctiva
  • changes in mucosa: loss of lingual papillae, diarrhoea, cheilosis
  • increased hair loss and brittleness of nails
  • immunosuppression
  • psychological fitness decrease
  • fatigue

Excess

Persons eating a lot of red meat and those heavily supplementing iron (over 50 mg/day) are at risk of iron overload. Haemochromatosis – excessive iron absorption from gastrointestinal tract – is a disease which increases the risk of iron overload.

Symptoms
  • increased susceptibility to infections
  • decreased absorption of zinc and copper
  • iron deposition in tissues leading to tissue damage
  • increased production of free radicals leading to an increased risk of neoplasm growth and heart disease
  • constipation, flatulence
  • hormonal disorders
  • osteoporosis
  • depression
Zinc

One of the most valuable micronutrients in our bodies which activates over 200 different enzymes. Zinc helps to maintain the acid-base homeostasis and helps with DNA synthesis. It performs a major role in metabolic processes, helps to maintain normal fertility and reproductive functions. Zinc improves the immune system and the condition of the skin, hair and nails.

Deficiency

Persons with intestinal problems and those on an unbalanced diet are at risk of zinc deficiency. Supplementation is recommended when using contraceptive steroids and drinking alcohol. Frequent diarrhoeas or cadmium poisoning can aggravate zinc deficiency.

Symptoms
  • skin problems
  • anaemia
  • slowdown in growth
  • congenital anomalies
  • wound healing difficulties
  • psoriasis-like skin lesions
  • dermatitis
  • hair loss
  • immunological disorders
  • taste and smell disorders
  • atherosclerosis

Excess

Zinc deficiency can be caused by supplementing this micronutrient in hyper doses.

Symptoms
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • ulcerations
  • inflammatory states of the mucosa
  • hepatic impairment
  • hepatitis
  • fainting
  • breathlessness
Copper

A mineral performing a regulatory function in the body. Copper helps to maintain the proper structure of connective tissues, improves the immune and nervous systems. It participates in the joint regeneration process, protects cells from ageing and helps to maintain normal skin and hair pigmentation. Copper is important in terms of hormonal balance.

Deficiency

Cooper deficiency in the body can be caused by following an elimination diet, lactating and supplementing copper in hyper doses.

Symptoms
  • problems with copper metabolism
  • irregularities within a connective tissue leading to adverse changes in the skeletal and vascular systems
  • anaemia resulting from improper use of copper (worse copper absorption, decreased number of red blood cells)
  • central nervous system diseases
  • decreased hair pigmentation
  • growth retardation
  • increased susceptibility to infections
  • difficulties in glucose and cholesterol metabolism
  • in the case of infants, copper deficiency is connected with immune and cardiovascular systems disorders

Excess

Above all, two diseases contribute to the copper overload – Alzheimer’s and Wilsons’.

Selenium

An element essential for the normal functioning of the thyroid and the immune system. Selenium contributes to normal spermatogenesis. It protects the body from free radical ageing, supports the process of the protection of cells against oxidative stress. Selenium helps to maintain healthy hair and nails.

Deficiency

Persons eating small amounts of products rich in selenium (for example Brazil nut) are at risk of selenium deficiency. Smoking tobacco also affects the selenium level in the body.

Symptoms
  • thyroid dysfunction
  • immunological disorders
  • fertility reduction (decreased sperm quality)

Excess

Selenium overload can be caused either by eating a great amount of Brazil nuts or excessive supplementation of the mineral.

Symptoms
  • brittleness and loss of nails
  • hair loss
  • vomiting
  • halitosis (garlic breath)
  • sweating
  • depression
  • irritability
Molybdenum

Molybdenum is one of the micronutrients essential for remaining in good physical health. It contributes to the normal metabolism of sulphuric amino acids and purine metabolism in the liver.

Deficiency

Molybdenum deficiency can lead to severe changes in the body. In particular, persons who frequently eat fried foods, are on an unbalanced diet or a diet aimed at weight-loss should remember about supplementing molybdenum. The molybdenum concentration in food depends on where the products – used in our meals – were cultivated.

Symptoms
  • problems with uric acid metabolism
  • decreased liver detoxification capability
  • increased uric acid levels

Excess

Molybdenum overload does not happen often; it is not possible to overdose this micronutrient when eating balanced and nutritious meals.

Symptoms
  • neurological disorders
Chromium

Chromium is an element which impacts carbohydrate metabolism in the body. It helps to maintain normal glucose levels in the blood, decreases cravings for a sweet flavour.

Deficiency

Persons frequently craving for sweet meals are at risk of chromium deficiency. Moreover, persons with atherosclerosis or type II diabetes should remember about chromium supplementation.

Symptoms
  • problems with sugar metabolism
  • increased level of the “bad” LDL cholesterol

Excess

Chromium overload can be caused by an excessive supplementation of the element.

Symptoms
  • headaches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
Manganese

A mineral contributing to the normal connective tissue development. Manganese helps to maintain proper energy metabolism and healthy bones. Manganese deficiency may have an adverse impact on joints.

Deficiency

Persons on a weight reduction diets and those taking laxatives are at risk of manganese deficiency.

Symptoms
  • physical development disorders
  • joint problems

Excess

Manganese overload can be caused by an excessive supplementation of the element.

Symptoms
  • increased probability of neurodegenerative diseases (dementia, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia)
Calcium

Calcium is the primary component of bones and teeth. It is also responsible for normal muscle contractility and blood coagulation; calcium supports metabolism. Both calcium deficiency (hypocalcaemia) and its overload (hypercalcaemia) are hazardous to human health.

Deficiency

Calcium deficiency may be the result of the elimination of products rich in this mineral from the diet. Moreover, compromised bowel function and renal insufficiency have an impact on calcium levels.

Symptoms
  • arthralgia (joint pain)
  • extremities numbness
  • muscle contractions
  • dentition damage
  • increased susceptibility to bone breakage

Excess

Calcium overload is hazardous to human health. Its primarily caused by excessive supplementation, excessive calcium resorption or increased intestinal calcium absorption.

Symptoms
  • nausea
  • constipation
  • lack of appetite
  • kidney stones

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential for the proper functioning of the living body. Due to their solubility, they are divided into fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E and K) and soluble in water (vitamins B and C).

Vitamin B1 - Thiamine

A vitamin responsible for regulating carbohydrate production processes. Vital for the normal functioning of the nervous system, energy metabolism and the heart. Vitamin B1 helps to maintain normal psychological functions.

Deficiency

Persons living under stress, performing heavy physical work or high-performance sports are at risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. Long-term hospitalisation, a disordered carbohydrate metabolism or abuse of alcohol are situations in which it is worth to remember about vitamin B1 supplementation.

Symptoms
  • fatigue
  • debility
  • nystagmus
  • impaired memory, concentration
  • irritability
  • bad mood, depression
  • impaired concentration
  • cardiovascular problems, increased heart rate, heart enlargement, swelling of the extremities
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach aches
  • decreased body weight

Excess

It is very difficult to overload vitamin B1 and only possible with intravenous infusion.

Symptoms
  • sweating
  • nausea
  • fatigue
  • breathlessness
  • dizziness
  • allergic reactions
Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin

Vitamin B2 is essential for maintaining energy transformation, normal red blood cells and mucosa. It contributes to the correct functioning of the nervous system and helps to maintain healthy skin and normal vision.

Deficiency

Persons frequently drinking alcohol and taking contraceptives or estrogens are at risk of vitamin B2 deficiency. Moreover, persons with anaemia or a mutation in the MTHFR gene (folic acid) should remember about vitamin B2 supplementation.

Symptoms
  • angular cheilitis (inflammation of the corners of the mouth)
  • exfoliation
  • glossitis
  • seborrhoeic dermatitis
  • redness and dryness of the conjunctiva
  • nervous and endocrine systems dysfunctions
  • growth retardation
  • decreased visual acuity
  • increased eye fatigue
  • itching in the vaginal orifice area
  • hair loss
  • concentration issues
  • sleeplessness
  • dizziness
  • breathing difficulties
  • muscular dystrophy

Excess

Vitamin B2 overload is excreted in the urine thus it is difficult to overdose vitamin B2.

Vitamin B3 - Niacin

It is an essential vitamin for human health which contributes to the maintenance of normal energy metabolism, psychological functions and nervous system functioning. It helps to maintain normal mucous membranes. It is one of the reasons we have a healthy skin, feel less fatigued and weary.

Deficiency

Persons taking antibiotics, sulphonamides, sleeping pills, estrogens or hormonal contraceptives are at risk of vitamin B3 deficiency. Supplementation is recommended in the case of excessive coffee, tea and sugar intake.

Symptoms
  • weariness
  • anorexia
  • disordered digestion
  • impaired intestinal motility
  • inflammatory changes in the mouth
  • glossitis
  • pellagra is a niacin and tryptophan deficiency disease

Excess

Vitamin B3 overload can be caused by excessive supplementation in therapeutic doses.

Symptoms
  • reddening of the face
  • flushing
  • age-related macular degeneration
  • hyperuricemia
Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B5 contributes, in particular, to the decrease of fatigue and weariness. It has a positive effect on the nervous system, helps to maintain normal energy metabolism. It impacts the synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters. Moreover, vitamin B5 helps to maintain mental health on an appropriate level.

Deficiency

Two factors which to a large extent contribute to vitamin B5 deficiency are severe stress and physical work. Athletes should pay particular attention to the supplementation. Vitamin B5 deficiency is also caused by alcoholism and malnutrition.

Symptoms
  • changes to skin and hair
  • growth retardation
  • weight loss
  • gastrointestinal system disorders
  • nervous system disorders
  • problems with wound healing
  • more frequent infections
  • symptoms of prisoners observed during World War II:
  • foot numbness, burning and tingling sensations of the feet, i.e. the so-called “burning feet syndrome”
  • headaches
  • fatigue
  • nausea
  • disordered sensations in extremities

Excess

Vitamin B5 overload is rarely seen. Diarrhoea can occur only when taking hyper doses.

Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine

It has the most extensive influence from the group B vitamins. It is vital for the nervous system. Vitamin B6 helps to maintain normal energy metabolism, it regulates the metabolism of homocysteine, protein and glycogen. It supports the immune and nervous systems and the maintenance of normal psychological functions. Its presence is important during red blood cells production, it contributes to hormonal activity regulation. Fatigue and weariness are symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency.

Deficiency

Pregnant and lactating women are particularly at risk of vitamin B6 deficiency. Persons over 50 years of age and those regularly drinking alcohol or smoking cigarettes should remember about the supplementation.

Symptoms
  • eczema
  • cheilosis
  • seborrhoeic dermatitis,
  • glossitis
  • stomatitis
  • microcytic anaemia
  • neurological disorders
  • accumulation of unused iron
  • accumulation of iron binding proteins: haemosiderins and ferritins in bone marrow
  • depression
  • seizures
  • apathy
  • sleeplessness
  • bad mood
  • decreased resistance to infections
  • nephrolithiasis
  • fatigue
  • one of the factors of atherosclerosis development

Excess

Vitamin B6 overload happens rarely – it can occur when taking therapeutic doses.

Symptoms
  • sensory neuropathies
  • sensory ataxia
Vitamin B7 - Biotin

One of the “beauty vitamins” – helps to maintain healthy skin and hair. It contributes to the maintenance of normal energy metabolism and psychological functions. Vitamin B7 supports proper functioning of the nervous system, the metabolism of macronutrients and the maintenance of normal mucous membranes.

Deficiency

Persons with hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance and those on long-term parenteral nutrition, suffering from liver problems or taking sulphonamides or antibiotics are at risk of vitamin B7 deficiency. Problems with biotin levels in the blood can occur in the case of digestive and absorption disorders, as well as intestinal mucosa disorders. In particular, persons eating raw eggs or smoking tobacco should remember about the supplementation.

Symptoms
  • psoriatic skin
  • retarded development of a child
  • lack of appetite
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dermatitis
  • conjunctivitis
  • ataxia
  • hair loss
  • increased cholesterol levels
  • muscle aches
  • anxiety disorders
  • hallucinations
  • increased cholesterol levels

Excess

Vitamin B7 overload can only be caused by excessive supplementation in therapeutic doses.

Symptoms
  • stomach aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
Vitamin B9- Folic Acid

Vitamin B9 is very important and performs many functions. It contributes to the maternal tissue growth during pregnancy and to the decrease of fatigue and weariness. It helps with normal amino acid synthesis and blood production, as well as with the maintenance of correct homocysteine metabolism. Vitamin B9 supports the immune system, regulates psychological functions and has a positive impact on the nervous system.

Majority of Poles intake insufficient amount of folic acid.

Deficiency

Symptoms
  • neural tube deficiencies
  • nervous system disorders
  • increased number of children being born with cardiac defects and low birth weight
  • megaloblastic anaemia
  • development of arteriosclerosis
  • increased risk of neoplasm growth
  • neuropsychiatric disorders
  • hyperactivity
  • inability to sleep
  • growth disorders
  • disordered digestion
  • malnutrition
  • diarrhoea
  • loss of appetite

Excess

As is the case for most of the vitamins, folic acid overload can only be caused by excessive supplementation.

Symptoms
  • impairments of blood parameters
  • disordered vitamin B12 metabolism
Vitamin B12 - Cobalamine

A vitamin essential for the proper functioning of the methylation processes. It supports normal red blood cells production, the functioning of the immune and nervous systems and regulates psychological functions. It also performs an important role in the cell division process. Vitamin B12 contributes to the maintenance of the correct energy metabolism and homocysteine metabolism. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can be fatigue or weariness.

Deficiency

Persons not eating meat are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. Moreover, the following are factors affecting the vitamin B12 level in the body: gastrointestinal problems, heartburn, gastric ulcers and taking drugs (proton-pump inhibitors), as well as undergoing treatment with metformin. Persons over 50 years of age should remember about the supplementation.

Symptoms
  • megaloblastic anaemia
  • neurological disorders (neuropathies, myelopathies, neuropsychiatric disorders, atrophy of the optic nerve)
  • degenerative changes in the intestinal mucosa
  • gastrointestinal disorders
  • lack of appetite
  • stomatitis
  • growth disorders in children
  • halitosis (garlic breath)
  • hyperhomocysteinemia
  • stuttering
  • depression
  • menstrual disorders

Excess

As is the case for most of the vitamins, vitamin B12 overload can only be caused by hyper doses intake, for instance in the form of an injection.

Symptoms
  • nosebleed
  • allergy symptoms
Vitamin C

Undoubtedly, the most known vitamin, it has an extensive influence. Vitamin C helps to maintain the correct functioning of the immune system (especially during and after intense workouts), the nervous system and blood vessels. It supports the proper production of collagen which improves the functioning of bones, gums, skin and teeth. Similarly to other vitamins, it is indirectly responsible for maintaining energy metabolism and proper psychological functions. Vitamin C contributes to the protection of cells against oxidative stress and the regeneration of the reduced form of vitamin E. It increases iron absorption. Fatigue and weariness are symptoms of vitamin C deficiency.

Smoking tobacco increases the requirement for vitamin C by 40% while taking aspirin increases its excretion threefold.

Deficiency

Pregnant and lactating women are particularly at risk of vitamin C deficiency. Persons with hypertension or diabetes should remember about the supplementation. Decreased levels of vitamin C in the blood can be caused by severe stress.

Symptoms
  • body weakness
  • increased susceptibility to infections
  • fatigue
  • decreases physical capabilities
  • wound healing difficulties
  • gum bleeding
  • decreased collagen synthesis
  • anaemia
  • increased risk of neoplasm growth
  • scurvy

Excess

Vitamin C overload can be caused by supplementation in hyper doses.

Symptoms
  • development of kidney stones
  • gastrointestinal disorders
  • diarrhoea
Vitamin D

The “sunshine” vitamin which enjoys a revival and its rather a hormone than a vitamin. Vitamin D helps to correctly absorb calcium and phosphorus, maintain healthy bones and teeth, proper functioning of the muscles and the immune system. It participates in the process of cell division, supports the maintenance of a normal level of calcium in the blood.

Almost 95% of Poles have a vitamin D deficiency and thus its supplementation is prescribed.

Deficiency

Since it called the “sunshine” vitamin, persons residing in enclosed rooms between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. or using sunscreens are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Persons suffering from obesity and older persons – because with age vitamin D production decreases by 75% – should also remember about the supplementation.

Symptoms
  • rickets in children
  • softening and brittling of bones in adolescents
  • development of type I diabetes during the first year of life
  • development of Alzheimer’s disease
  • mood disorders, depression
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • immunologic diseases
  • inflammatory bowel diseases
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • multiple sclerosis
  • thyroid diseases
  • risk of neoplasm growth

Excess

Vitamin D overload can be caused by excessive supplementation.

Symptoms
  • nausea
  • diarrhoea
  • weight loss
  • tiring easily
  • excessive sweating
  • lack of appetite
  • drowsiness
  • retarded development in children
  • heart arrhythmia
  • increased need to urinate
  • eye pain
  • pain of the jaw, joints and muscles
  • headache
  • pruritus
  • increased risk of arteriosclerosis development
  • increased risk of kidney stones development
Vitamin E

The so-called “vitamin of youth”. It helps to protect cells against ageing processes and oxidative stress. It belongs to a group of fat-soluble vitamins, it is vital for fertility.

Eating highly processed foods can cause a loss of up to 75% of vitamin E.

Deficiency

Persons taking contraceptives, thyroid hormones, estrogens and laxatives are at risk of vitamin E deficiency.

Symptoms
  • there are no symptoms characteristic for vitamin E deficiency
  • muscle weakness
  • skin keratinisation and early ageing of the skin
  • problems with wound healing
  • neurological disorders
  • decreases in concentration
  • irritability
  • anaemia in infants and children
  • infertility
  • sight deterioration
  • increased risk of cardiovascular diseases
  • increased risk of arteriosclerosis and neoplasm development

Excess

Vitamin D overload can be caused by supplementation in hyper doses or happen during pregnancy.

Symptoms
  • fatigue
  • headaches
  • muscle weakness
  • visual imperilments

Bioactive Substances

Bioactive substances are the basic nutrients, as well as non-nutrient compounds naturally occurring in the raw material or product subjected to the technological process. They affect the physiological and metabolic functions of the body (strengthen, weaken or modify).

Silymarin

A substance vital for the liver – protects and regenerates liver cells. It is naturally present in milk thistle.

Deficiency

Silymarin is not essential for human life and thus there are no circumstances in which its deficiency is increased.

Excess

Taking hyper doses can lead to silymarin overload in the body.

Symptoms
  • diarrhoea
  • vomiting
  • nausea
Choline

A substance once regarded as a group B vitamin, it primarily helps with the normal functioning of the liver. It participates in the building of cell membranes and contributes to the maintenance of the normal metabolism of homocysteine and fats.

Deficiency

Choline is produced internally, its deficiency can be caused by severe malnutrition.

Excess

Choline overload can be caused by supplementation in hyper doses.

Coenzyme Q10

One of the so-called “substances of youth” - its lack accelerates the ageing processes. It participates in the energy production and immunological processes, stabilises cell membranes and has antioxidant properties.

The maximum amount of this substance in the body is reached at the age of 20 and it decreases systemically from that point forward.

Deficiency

There are a lot of situations leading to coenzyme Q10 deficiency. It could be caused by various slimming treatments, improper nutrition, eating processed foods, as well as malnutrition and alcoholism. Persons over 50 years of age and those suffering from hypertension or cardiomyopathy should remember about the supplementation. Poisoning and infections have an adverse impact on the level of the substance in our body.

Symptoms
  • clinical symptoms of Q10 deficiency are ambiguous
  • first, it could be the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome
  • then, there are symptoms displayed by the organs with Q10 deficiency
  • disordered production of high-energy compounds which leads to the decreased efficiency of cells, tissues and the entire body
  • Q10 deficiency can lead to the development of various diseases, such as heart diseases, neoplasm growth, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, muscle disorders, neurodegenerative diseases
  • regeneration disorders
  • decreased sperm motility

Excess

Coenzyme Q10 overload is virtually impossible.

Lutein

Biological pigment from the carotenoid family. It protects the organ of sight - decreases the number of free radicals in our eyeball, slowing down the macular degeneration process.

Deficiency

Lutein is not essential for human life and thus there is no information about symptoms of lutein deficiency.

Excess

Overdosing lutein is virtually impossible. Lutein overload can be caused by supplementation in hyper doses.

Phosphatidylcholine

It is also known as lecithin. It is essential for the normal functioning of the liver, the nervous system, it increases intellectual capacity and participates in the building of cell membranes.

Deficiency

Phosphatidylcholine is produced in the body and thus deficiency symptoms were not observed.

Excess

Overdosing lecithin is impossible.

Lycopene

It decreases the risk of neoplasm growth and has a positive impact on the heart. It is naturally present in tomatoes. Similarly to carotene, it participates in the capturing of the free radicals in the cells.

Deficiency

Lycopene is not essential for human life and thus there are no circumstances of its deficiency.

Excess

Overdosing lycopene is virtually impossible. Lycopene overload can be caused by supplementation in hyper doses.

Omega-3 Acids

Omega-3 acids help prevent diseases, preserve youth and improve mood. Thanks to the appropriate dose of omega-3 fatty acids, you will avoid, for example, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, allergies or heart disease. Omega-3 acids are necessary especially for pregnant women and small children.

EPA

Omega-3 acids are a special type of fat which are not produced by the human body and they need to be provided with the diet. They are essential for the normal functioning of the body. They have scientifically proven effects, improving the heartbeat and the functioning of the circulatory system. Moreover, they decrease the probability of a heart attack. Omega-3 acids help to maintain normal cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is difficult to eat an appropriate daily amount of omega-3 acids. In order to achieve that we would need to eat almost 100 grams of salmon a day! That is why a supplementation is recommended.

Deficiency

Persons who do not have fish in their diets are at risk of omega-3 acids deficiency.

Symptoms
  • visual impairments in children
  • increased inflammation
  • atherosclerosis
  • strokes
  • heart attacks
  • retarded development

Excess

Omega-3 acids overload occur very rarely (only when taking hyper doses).

Symptoms
  • nosebleeds
  • coagulation disorders
  • diarrhoea
DHA

Omega-3 acids are a special type of fat which are not produced by the human body and they need to be provided with the diet. They are essential for the normal functioning of the body. They have scientifically proven effects, improving the heartbeat and the functioning of the circulatory system. Omega-3 acids help to maintain normal cholesterol levels in the blood and normal vision. They contribute to the normal functioning of the brain.

It is difficult to eat an appropriate daily amount of omega-3 acids. In order to achieve that we would need to eat almost 100 grams of salmon a day! That is why a supplementation is recommended.

Deficiency

Persons who have an insufficient amount of fish in their diets or do not supplement omega-3 acids are at risk of deficiency.

Symptoms
  • visual impairments in children
  • increased inflammation
  • atherosclerosis
  • strokes
  • heart attacks
  • retarded development

Excess

Omega-3 acids overload occur very rarely and is primarily caused by taking hyper doses.

Symptoms
  • nosebleeds
  • coagulation disorders
  • diarrhoea

Probiotics

Probiotics, i.e. good bacteria, have therapeutic properties confirmed by numerous tests - they support, among others, treatment of diarrhea, allergies, atopy, inflammatory diseases of the intestines and liver, strengthen the body's immunity. Probiotics are found naturally in some foods and are available as dietary supplements.

Saccharomyces Boulardii CNCM I-745

A type of probiotic fungi which supports normal intestinal functions, contributes to the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium. It reduces the duration and intensity of acute diarrhoea and subsequent infectious diarrhoeas in children, alleviates the symptoms of the traveller’s diarrhoea. It protects the balance between the “good” and the “bad” bacteria in the intestines. It has a great capacity to grow and survive during an antibiotic treatment. A probiotic used in the case of symptoms related to IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and as a protection during diarrhoeas induced by enteral nutrition. It is also recommended for adults and children suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

Deficiency

Only leading a western lifestyle (Western pattern diet) and having a small number of fermented products and dietary fibres in a diet can cause a deficiency of this fungi. Persons taking antibiotics, eating highly-processed foods and living in chronic stress should remember about the supplementation. Living in a contaminated environment also has a negative impact.

Symptoms
  • Direct deficiency symptoms were not observed.

Excess

Suffering from the intestinal bacterial overgrowth or taking immunosuppressive drugs can lead to the proliferation of the fungi.

Symptoms
  • flatulence
  • increased intestinal gas
  • stomach aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • chronic constipationchronic
  • diarrhoea
  • eructation
  • inflammation of the gastric mucosa
  • post-meal heaviness
  • reflux
  • heartburn
  • anaemia
  • depression
  • arthralgia (joint pain)
  • skin disorders
Bifidobacterium breve BR03

A bacteria strain which supports normal functioning of the intestines, contributes to the regeneration of intestinal epithelium. It belongs to the class of anaerobic bacteria producing lactic acid which is important for the functioning of the intestines. It protects the balance between the “good” and the “bad” bacteria in the intestines. It reduces the duration and intensity of acute diarrhoea and subsequent infectious diarrhoeas in children. It protects against gastrointestinal mycosis and moniliasis, especially when taking antibiotics and sulphonamides. A probiotic used in the case of symptoms related to IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and as a protection during diarrhoeas induced by enteral nutrition. It is also recommended for adults and children suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

Deficiency

Only leading a western lifestyle (Western pattern diet) and having a small number of fermented products and dietary fibres in a diet can cause a deficiency of this fungi. Persons taking antibiotics, eating highly-processed foods and living in chronic stress should remember about the supplementation. Living in a contaminated environment also has a negative impact.

Symptoms
  • antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
  • clostridium difficile colitis

Excess

Suffering from the intestinal bacterial overgrowth or taking immunosuppressive drugs can lead to the proliferation of the fungi.

Symptoms
  • flatulence
  • increased intestinal gas
  • stomach aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • chronic constipation
  • chronic diarrhoea
  • eructation
  • inflammation of the gastric mucosa
  • post-meal heaviness
  • reflux
  • heartburn
  • anaemia
  • depression
  • arthralgia (joint pain)
  • skin disorders
Inulin

A fibre-like substance. Insulin provides nourishment for bacteria in the intestines, supports normal functioning of the intestines. It protects the balance between the “good” and the “bad” bacteria in the intestines.

Deficiency

Insulin deficiency can be caused by eating small amounts of products containing insulin, like garlic, onions, chicory or asparagus.

Symptoms
  • Direct deficiency symptoms were not observed.

Excess

Insulin overload is primarily caused by supplementation in hyper doses.

Symptoms
  • constipation
  • nausea
  • stomach aches
  • diarrhoea
  • vomiting
Lactobacillus plantarum LP01

One of the most thoroughly examined bacteria strain. Supports normal functioning of the intestines, contributes to the regeneration of intestinal epithelium. It belongs to the class of anaerobic bacteria producing lactic acid which is important for the functioning of the intestines. It reduces the duration and intensity of acute diarrhoea and subsequent infectious diarrhoeas in children. It protects against gastrointestinal mycosis and moniliasis, especially when taking antibiotics and sulphonamides. A probiotic used in the case of symptoms related to IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and as a protection during diarrhoeas induced by enteral nutrition. It is also recommended for adults and children suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, it alleviates the symptoms of the traveller’s diarrhoea.

Deficiency

Only leading a western lifestyle (Western pattern diet) and having a small number of fermented products and dietary fibres in a diet can cause a deficiency of this fungi. Persons taking antibiotics, eating highly-processed foods and living in chronic stress should remember about the supplementation. Living in a contaminated environment also has a negative impact.

Symptoms
  • antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
  • clostridium difficile colitis

Excess

Suffering from the intestinal bacterial overgrowth can lead to the proliferation of the fungi.

Symptoms
  • flatulence
  • increased intestinal gas
  • stomach aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • chronic constipation
  • chronic diarrhoea
  • eructation
  • inflammation of the gastric mucosa
  • post-meal heaviness
  • reflux
  • heartburn
  • anaemia
  • depression
  • arthralgia (joint pain)
  • skin disorders